Sunday, 5 July 2015

Ectoparasitic infections - STI's - Bacterial Sepsis Hematopoietic/Lymphoreticular Infections -Infections of the Heart - Infections of bones and joints - Respiratory tract infections

Common Causes of Infectious Diseases
* = most common; please note this is not an exhaustive list and does not include all possible etiologies for a particular disease.

 Central Nervous System Infections

Bacterial meningitis
 Neonates (less than 1 month old)
  • Streptococcus agalactiae (Group b streptococcus)
  • Escherichia col
Children and adults
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Neisseria meningitidis
Elderly (>60 yrs old)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Gram negative bacilli
Viral (aseptic) meningitis and encephalitis (90% of cases in patients under 30 years old)
  • Enteroviruses (70%; late summer and early fall)
  • Arboviral meningoencephalitis (summer via tick or mosquito; West Nile virus, Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus, Western Equine Encephalitis virus, St. Louis Encephalitis virus, California group Encephalitis viruses, Powassan Encephalitis virus)- are the most common cause of episodic encephalitis in the US.
  • Mumps (late winter and early spring)
  • Herpes simplex virus (sporadic)
  • HIV (sporadic)
  • Rabies virus (rare)
Granulomatous Meningitis (Chronic meningitis)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Cryptococcus neoformans
Spinal cord
  • Clostridium tetanus*
  • Polio virus

Skin (Integument) Infections

There are a huge number of infectious diseases of this the largest organ of the human anatomy. Therefore, only the more common bacterial, viral and fungal microbes are mentioned here.

Common Bacterial Infections.
  • Staphylococcus aureus - impetigo, bullous impetigo, scalded skin syndrome, folliculitis, furuncles, carbuncles, cellulitis, myositis and toxic shock syndrome.
  • Streptococcus pyogenes - impetigo, scarlet fever, erysipelas, necrotizing fasciitis, and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. 
  • Propionibacterium acne - acne
Common Viral Infections.
  • Herpes Simplex 1 and 2 viruses- oral and genital herpes
  • Papilloma viruses – warts, genital warts, cervical dysplasia and cervical carcinoma
  • Common childhood rashes (exanthems) are caused by
    • Coxsackie viruses and Echoviruses (enteroviral rashes),
    • Erythrovirus B19 (formerly Parvovirus B19; Erythema Infectiosum)
    • Human Herpes virus 6B (Exanthem subitum or Roseola)
    • Human Herpes Virus-7 (Exanthem subitum or Roseola)
    • Varicella-Zoster virus (Chickenpox)
    • Measles virus (Rubeola)
    • Rubella virus (Rubella).
Common Fungal Infections.
  • Malassezia furfur- Tinea versicolor
  • The dermatophytes (Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton) - Tinea pedis, Tinea corporis, Tinea capitis, Tinea manus and Tinea cruris.
  • Candida albicans - intertrigo, perl├Ęche, folliculitis, paronchyia and onychomycosis.

Ear Infections

Otitis Media

  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Moraxella catarrhalis
  • Haemophilus influenzae (nontypable)
Otitis externa
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa*
  • Staphylococcus aureus

Eye and Eyelid Infections

Anterior Blepharitis
  • Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis
Hordeola (stye)
  • Staphylococcus aureus
Periorbital (Preseptal) Cellulitis
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae in young children
  • Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes post-traumatic
Orbital (Postseptal) Cellulitis
  • Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Enterobacteriaceae
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa


  • Viral- Adenoviruses*, Herpes Simplex viruses’ types 1 and 2 (less common but more serious infection)
  • Bacterial (pinkeye)- Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis
  • Chlamydial- Chlamydia trachomatis
  • Bacteria*
    • Gram positive bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus viridans, enterococci and Peptostreptococcus) are most frequently obtained with the most common of them being Staphylococcus aureus.
    • Gram positive bacilli that cause keratitis include Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Bacillus and Clostridium
    • Gram negative bacilli that cause keratitis include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophila. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most destructive of the bacterial causes of keratitis.
    • Gram negative cocci or coccobacilli that cause keratitis include Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, Moraxella, Pasteurella multocida and Acinetobacter.
    • Ocular lymphogranuloma venereum is more serious than simple chlamydial conjunctivitis because corneal scars, conjunctival scars, and micropannus formation can occur (serotypes L1-L3 of Chlamydia trachomatis).
  • Viruses
    • Herpes Simplex 1 and 2*- most common of viruses
    • Adenoviruses- epidemic keratoconjunctivitis
    • Varicella Zoster virus

Respiratory Tract Infections

Acute Rhinosinusitis
  • Usually caused by various respiratory viruses.
Acute Bacterial Rhinosinusitis
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Haemophilus influenzae (nontypable)
Common cold (Rhinitis)
  • Rhinoviruses*
  • Coronaviruses
  • Adenovirus
  • Herpes Simplex virus
  • Epstein Barr Virus
  • Coxsackie viruses
  • Remember Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus is important because of the complications that can result (rheumatic fever).
Viral Croup
  • Parainfluenza virus
  • Influenza virus
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (most common cause of bronchiolitis in children under 1 year of age).
Bacterial tracheitis
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b (very rare now due to the Hib vaccine)
  • Respiratory viruses that infect the upper respiratory tract: influenza viruses A and B, parainfluenza viruses, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, herpes simplex virus, rhinovirus, coxsackievirus A and B, and echovirus.
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae
  • Chlamydophila pneumoniae (TWAR agent)- 5% of cases
  • Streptococcus pyogenes
  • Respiratory Syncytial virus (RSV)
Neonatal (0-1 month)
  • Escherichia coli
  • Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus)
Infants (1-6 month)
  • Chlamydia trachomatis (afebrile pneumonia with staccato cough)
  • RSV
Children (6month-5 year)
  • RSV
  • Parainfluenza virus
Children (5-15 year)
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae
  • Influenza virus type A
Young Adults (16-30 yr)
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Older Adults
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae*
  • Haemophilus influenzae

Gastrointestinal tract infections

Infections of the Teeth
  • Dental caries- Streptococcus mutans
  • Gingivitis/periodontal disease- is a polymicrobial process; Organisms commonly associated with these conditions: Eubacterium sp., Micromonas (Peptostreptococcus) micros, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteroides forsythus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, Capnocytophaga sp., Selenomonas sp., and spirochaetes.
Ludwig’s Angina
  • Streptococcus, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium and/or Staphylococcus aureus
Infections of the Mouth and Tongue
  • Herpes Simplex viruses 1 and 2 (gingivostomatitis or cold sores)
  • Candida albicans (oral candidiasis)
Angular Cheilitis
  • Candida albicans
  • Mumps virus- benign viral parotitis
  • Staphylococcus aureus- acute bacterial parotitis
Esophagitis- usually only seen in immunocompromised patients
  • Candida albicans*
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)
Peptic Ulcer Disease
  • Helicobacter pylori
Intestinal Infections- Bacterial (can be inflammatory [blood and mucus small volume; fecal wbc's present] or noninflammatory [large volume watery stools; fecal wbc's NOT present]
Inflammatory ones
  • Campylobacter jejuni
  • Escherichia coli (EIEC)
  • Escherichia coli (EHEC)
  • Salmonella typhimurium
  • Salmonella typhi (get also fever and headache; sometimes no diarrhea)
  • Shigella dysenteriae type 1 (lots of PMN's)
  • Shigella sonnei/flexneri
  • Yersinia enterocolitica
  • Clostridium difficile (can be both inflammatory and non-inflammatory)
Non-inflammatory ones
  • Escherichia coli (EPEC)
  • Escherichia coli (ETEC)
  • Escherichia coli (EAEC)
  • Vibrio cholerae
  • Clostridium difficile (can be both inflammatory and non-inflammatory)

Parasitic infections of the intestine
  • Giardia lamblia*
  • Entamoeba histolytica
  • Cryptosporidium parvum
  • Enterobius vermicularis
  • Taenia saginata
  • Taenia solium
  • Hymenolepis nana
  • Ascaris lumbricoides
  • Necator americanus
  • Strongyloides stercoralis
Viral Gastroenteritis
  • Rotavirus (winter infant diarrhea- most common in infants and children)
  • Noroviruses* (winter vomiting disease- most common in industrialized countries)
  • Norwalk virus (summer diarrhea)
  • Adenoviruses
  • Astroviruses
Food poisoning- intoxications
  • Staphylococcus aureus*
  • Bacillus cereus
  • Clostridium perfringens
  • Clostridium botulinum
Viral Hepatitis- Infections of the Liver
  • Hepatitis A virus*
  • Hepatitis C virus
  • Hepatitis B virus

Infections of the Bones and Joints

  • Staphylococcus aureus*
  • Streptococcus sp.
  • Members of the Enterobacteriaceae
Septic arthritis
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae (most common in sexually active young adults)
  • Staphylococcus aureus*

Infections of the Heart

  • Viral pericarditis*- Enteroviruses [Coxsackieviruses (A and B) and Echovirus (type 8)]
  • Purulent pericarditis- rare- Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and other streptococci
  • Chronic pericarditis- rare- Mycobacterium tuberculosis and various fungi (Candida sp.)
  • Enteroviruses (Coxsackievirus B is the most common)*
·        Native valve- Streptococcus sp. (60-80%, viridans streptococci (30-40%), Streptococcus bovis (10%), Enterococci (S. faecalis and S. faecium; 5-18%) and Staphylococci (20-35%, usually Staphylococcus aureus)
·        Intravenous drug users- Staphylococcus aureus (50%) and gram-negative bacilli (15%; Pseudomonas aeruginosa is most the common gram-negative).
·        Prosthetic valve infections
    • Early (within 2 months of surgery) - Staphylococcus (50%; coagulase positive and coagulase negative), gram-negative aerobic bacilli (20%) and fungi (5%).
    • Late (more than 2 months post surgery) - viridans Streptococcus sp. (35%), coagulase negative staphylococci (20%), and Staphylococcus aureus (10%).
Rheumatic Heart Disease
  • Streptococcus pyogenes

Hematopoietic/Lymphoreticular Infections

Infections of the Lymphocytes
  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS)- T-lymphocytes 
  • Infectious Mononucleosis- B-lymphocytes
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections- T-lymphocytes and macrophages
Infections of the Phagocytic Cells
  • Cat-scratch disease – Bartonella henselae  
  • Tularemia – Francisella tularensis 
  • Ehrlichiosis/Anaplasmosis - Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii and Anaplasma phagocytophilum
  • Q fever- Coxiella burnetii       
  • Brucellosis- Brucella sp. Plague- Yersinia pestis
Infection of the Erythrocytes
  • Babesia- Babesia microti
  • Malaria- Plasmodium sp.
Infection of the Endothelial Cells
  • Bacillary Angiomatosis/Hepatica peliosis- Bartonella henselae or Bartonella quintana  
  • Endemic relapsing fever- Borrelia sp. (15 different species; B. hermsii, B. parkeri)
  • Epidemic Hemorrhagic fever- Sin Nombre virus (Hantavirus- hantavirus pulmonary syndrome)
  • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever- Rickettsia rickettsii

Bacterial Sepsis

  • E.coli*
  • Streptococcus agalactiae (group b strep.)
Adults (Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, Sepsis, Septic Shock)
  • Most are due to bacterial infections. 50% due to Gram negative bacteria; 50% due to Gram positive bacteria. It depends on the location of the site of the initial infection. Most common sites of infection leading to sepsis are lungs, abdomen, and urinary tract (ex. urinary tract think Escherichia coli; community acquired pneumonia think Streptococcus pneumoniae).

Infections of the Genitourinary Tract

Cystitis and Pyelonephritis
  • Escherichia coli*
Acute bacterial Prostatitis
  • Escherichia coli*
  • Bacterial Vaginosis* (BV) due to Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis and various anaerobic bacteria including Mobiluncus sp., and Prevotella sp.
  • Candida albicans
  • Trichomonas vaginalis

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI’s) of the Genitourinary Tract

Genital Ulcerative Diseases
  • Genital Herpes- HSV-2* (80%),
  • HSV-1 (20%) Syphilis- Treponema pallidum
  • Chancroid- Haemophilus ducreyi
  • Granuloma Inguinale- Klebsiella granulomatis (formerly Calymmatobacterium granulomatis)    
  • Lymphogranuloma Venereum- Chlamydia trachomatis
  • Chlamydia trachomatis*
  •  Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  • Chlamydia trachomatis*
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Other STI’s

Acute Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
  • Chlamydia trachomatis*
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Genital Warts
  • Human Papilloma virus (HPV types 6 and 11 most common for wart-like lesions; HPV types 16 and 18 most common for with cervical dysplasia and carcinoma.)
  • Sexually active men aged <35 years-  Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  • Men >35 years of age- gram-negative enteric bacteria

Ectoparasitic Infections

  • Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis
  • Pediculus humanus capitis (head louse)
  • Pediculus humanus corporis (body louse)
  • Pthirus pubis (pubic louse)
* = Most common; please note this is not an exhaustive list and does not include all possible etiologies for a particular disease.
Revised 12/6/06

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