Saturday, 18 April 2015

Foodborne illnesses, Do we get so sick because we already have candida

Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease and colloquially referred to as food poisoning)[1] is any illness resulting from the consumption of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food,[2] as well as chemical or natural toxins such as poisonous mushrooms.
Symptoms vary depending on the cause, and are described below in this article. A few broad generalizations can be made, e.g.: The incubation period ranges from hours to days, depending on the cause and on how much was consumed. The incubation period tends to cause sufferers to not associate the symptoms with the item consumed, and so to cause sufferers to attribute the symptoms to stomach flu for example. Symptoms often include vomiting, fever, and aches, and may include diarrhea. Bouts of vomiting can be repeated with an extended delay in between, because even if infected food was eliminated from the stomach in the first bout, microbes (if applicable) can pass through the stomach into the intestine via cells lining the intestinal walls and begin to multiply. Some types of microbes stay in the intestine, some produce a toxin that is absorbed into the bloodstream, and some can directly invade deeper body tissues.


See also: Pathogen

Poorly stored food in a refrigerator
Foodborne illness usually arises from improper handling, preparation, or food storage. Good hygiene practices before, during, and after food preparation can reduce the chances of contracting an illness. There is a consensus in the public health community that regular hand-washing is one of the most effective defenses against the spread of foodborne illness. The action of monitoring food to ensure that it will not cause foodborne illness is known as food safety. Foodborne disease can also be caused by a large variety of toxins that affect the environment.[3]
Foodborne illness can also be caused by pesticides or medicines in food and naturally toxic substances such as poisonous mushrooms or reef fish.


Bacteria are a common cause of foodborne illness. In the United Kingdom during 2000, the individual bacteria involved were the following: Campylobacter jejuni 77.3%, Salmonella 20.9%, Escherichia coli O157:H7 1.4%, and all others less than 0.56%.[4] In the past, bacterial infections were thought to be more prevalent because few places had the capability to test for norovirus and no active surveillance was being done for this particular agent. Toxins from bacterial infections are delayed because the bacteria need time to multiply. As a result symptoms associated with intoxication are usually not seen until 12–72 hours or more after eating contaminated food. Usually the symptoms are seen the day after the food has been ingested and digested completely. However if the intoxication involves preformed toxins as is the case with Staphylococcal food poisoning, the symptoms appear within a few hours.[citation needed]
Most common bacterial foodborne pathogens are:
Other common bacterial foodborne pathogens are:
Less common bacterial agents:


See also: Botulism
In addition to disease caused by direct bacterial infection, some foodborne illnesses are caused by a enterotoxins (an exotoxin targeting the intestines). Enterotoxins can produce illness even when the microbes that produced them have been killed. Symptom appearance varies with the toxin but may be rapid on-set, as in the case of enterotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus in which symptoms appear in 1–6 hours.[10] This causes intense vomiting including or not including diarrhea (resulting in staphylococcal enteritis), and staphylococcal enterotoxins (most commonly Staphylococcal enterotoxin A but also including Staphylococcal enterotoxin B) are the most commonly reported enterotoxins although cases of poisoning are likely underestimated.[11] It occurs mainly in cooked and processed foods due to competition with other biota in raw foods, and humans are the main cause of contamination as a substantial percentage of humans are persistent carriers of S. aureus.[11] The CDC has estimated about 240,000 cases per year in the United States.[12]
The rare but potentially deadly disease botulism occurs when the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum grows in improperly canned low-acid foods and produces botulin, a powerful paralytic toxin.
Pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis, certain species of Pseudomonas and Vibrio, and some other bacteria, produce the lethal tetrodotoxin, which is present in the tissues of some living animal species rather than being a product of decomposition.

Emerging foodborne pathogens[edit]

Many foodborne illnesses remain poorly understood. Approximately 99.9% percent of outbreaks are caused by unknown sources.[citation needed]

Preventing bacterial food poisoning[edit]

Proper storage and refrigeration of food help in the prevention of food poisoning
Prevention is mainly the role of the state, through the definition of strict rules of hygiene and a public services of veterinary surveying of animal products in the food chain, from farming to the transformation industry and delivery (shops and restaurants). This regulation includes:
  • traceability: in a final product, it must be possible to know the origin of the ingredients (originating farm, identification of the harvesting or of the animal) and where and when it was processed; the origin of the illness can thus be tracked and solved (and possibly penalized), and the final products can be removed from the sale if a problem is detected;
  • enforcement of hygiene procedures such as HACCP and the "cold chain";
  • power of control and of law enforcement of veterinarians.
In August 2006, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved Phage therapy which involves spraying meat with viruses that infect bacteria, and thus preventing infection. This has raised concerns, because without mandatory labelling consumers would not be aware that meat and poultry products have been treated with the spray.[13]
At home, prevention mainly consists of good food safety practices. Many forms of bacterial poisoning can be prevented even if food is contaminated by cooking it sufficiently, and either eating it quickly or refrigerating it effectively[citation needed]. Many toxins, however, are not destroyed by heat treatment.
Techniques that help prevent food borne illness in the kitchen are hand washing, preventing cross-contamination, proper storage, and maintaining cooking temperatures. In general, freezing or refrigerating prevents virtually all bacteria from growing, and heating food sufficiently kills parasites, viruses, and most bacteria. The "danger zone" is a zone of temperatures in which bacteria grow most rapidly, which is 40 °F-140 °F. Storing food below or above the "danger zone" can effectively limit the production of toxins. For storing leftovers, the food must be put in shallow containers for quick cooling and must be refrigerated within two hours. When food is reheated, it must reach an internal temperature of 165 °F or until hot or steaming to kill bacteria.[14]

Mycotoxins and alimentary mycotoxicoses[edit]

The term alimentary mycotoxicoses refers to the effect of poisoning by Mycotoxins (The term 'mycotoxin' is usually reserved for the toxic chemical products produced by fungi that readily colonize crops) through food consumption. Mycotoxins sometimes have important effects on human and animal health. For example, an outbreak which occurred in the UK in 1960 caused the death of 100,000 turkeys which had consumed aflatoxin-contaminated peanut meal. In the USSR in World War II, 5,000 people died due to Alimentary Toxic Aleukia (ALA).[15] The common foodborne Mycotoxins include:
  • Aflatoxins – originated from Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus. They are frequently found in tree nuts, peanuts, maize, sorghum and other oilseeds, including corn and cottonseeds. The pronounced forms of Aflatoxins are those of B1, B2, G1, and G2, amongst which Aflatoxin B1 predominantly targets the liver, which will result in necrosis, cirrhosis, and carcinoma.[16][17] In the US, the acceptable level of total aflatoxins in foods is less than 20 μg/kg, except for Aflatoxin M1 in milk, which should be less than 0.5 μg/kg.[18] The official document can be found at FDA's website.[19][20]
  • Altertoxins – are those of Alternariol (AOH), Alternariol methyl ether (AME), Altenuene (ALT), Altertoxin-1 (ATX-1), Tenuazonic acid (TeA) and Radicinin (RAD), originated from Alternaria spp. Some of the toxins can be present in sorghum, ragi, wheat and tomatoes.[21][22][23] Some research has shown that the toxins can be easily cross-contaminated between grain commodities, suggesting that manufacturing and storage of grain commodities is a critical practice.[24]
  • Citrinin
  • Citreoviridin
  • Cyclopiazonic acid
  • Cytochalasins
  • Ergot alkaloids / Ergopeptine alkaloidsErgotamine
  • Fumonisins – Crop corn can be easily contaminated by the fungi Fusarium moniliforme, and its Fumonisin B1 will cause Leukoencephalomalacia (LEM) in horses, Pulmonary edema syndrome (PES) in pigs, liver cancer in rats and Esophageal cancer in humans.[25][26] For human and animal health, both the FDA and the EC have regulated the content levels of toxins in food and animal feed.[27][28]
  • Fusaric acid
  • Fusarochromanone
  • Kojic acid
  • Lolitrem alkaloids
  • Moniliformin
  • 3-Nitropropionic acid
  • Nivalenol
  • Ochratoxins – In Australia, The Limit of Reporting (LOR) level for Ochratoxin A (OTA) analyses in 20th Australian Total Diet Survey was 1 µg/kg,[29] whereas the EC restricts the content of OTA to 5 µg/kg in cereal commodities, 3 µg/kg in processed products and 10 µg/kg in dried vine fruits.[30]
  • Oosporeine
  • Patulin – Currently, this toxin has been advisably regulated on fruit products. The EC and the FDA have limited it to under 50 µg/kg for fruit juice and fruit nectar, while limits of 25 µg/kg for solid-contained fruit products and 10 µg/kg for baby foods were specified by the EC.[30][31]
  • Phomopsins
  • Sporidesmin A
  • Sterigmatocystin
  • Tremorgenic mycotoxins – Five of them have been reported to be associated with molds found in fermented meats. These are Fumitremorgen B, Paxilline, Penitrem A, Verrucosidin, and Verruculogen.[32]
  • Trichothecenes – sourced from Cephalosporium, Fusarium, Myrothecium, Stachybotrys and Trichoderma. The toxins are usually found in molded maize, wheat, corn, peanuts and rice, or animal feed of hay and straw.[33][34] Four trichothecenes, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) and deoxynivalenol (DON) have been most commonly encountered by humans and animals. The consequences of oral intake of, or dermal exposure to, the toxins will result in Alimentary toxic aleukia, neutropenia, aplastic anemia, thrombocytopenia and/or skin irritation.[35][36][37] In 1993, the FDA issued a document for the content limits of DON in food and animal feed at an advisory level.[38] In 2003, US published a patent that is very promising for farmers to produce a trichothecene-resistant crop.[39]
  • Zearalenone
  • Zearalenols


Viral infections make up perhaps one third of cases of food poisoning in developed countries. In the US, more than 50% of cases are viral and noroviruses are the most common foodborne illness, causing 57% of outbreaks in 2004. Foodborne viral infection are usually of intermediate (1–3 days) incubation period, causing illnesses which are self-limited in otherwise healthy individuals; they are similar to the bacterial forms described above.
  • Enterovirus
  • Hepatitis A is distinguished from other viral causes by its prolonged (2–6 week) incubation period and its ability to spread beyond the stomach and intestines into the liver. It often results in jaundice, or yellowing of the skin, but rarely leads to chronic liver dysfunction. The virus has been found to cause infection due to the consumption of fresh-cut produce which has fecal contamination.[40][41]
  • Hepatitis E
  • Norovirus
  • Rotavirus



Most foodborne parasites are zoonoses.
See also: Tapeworm and Flatworm

Natural toxins[edit]

Several foods can naturally contain toxins, many of which are not produced by bacteria. Plants in particular may be toxic; animals which are naturally poisonous to eat are rare. In evolutionary terms, animals can escape being eaten by fleeing; plants can use only passive defenses such as poisons and distasteful substances, for example capsaicin in chili peppers and pungent sulfur compounds in garlic and onions. Most animal poisons are not synthesised by the animal, but acquired by eating poisonous plants to which the animal is immune, or by bacterial action.
Some plants contain substances which are toxic in large doses, but have therapeutic properties in appropriate dosages.

Other pathogenic agents[edit]

"Ptomaine poisoning"[edit]

An early theory on the causes of food poisoning involved ptomaines (from Greek ptōma, "fall, fallen body, corpse"), alkaloids found in decaying animal and vegetable matter. While some alkaloids do cause poisoning, the discovery of bacteria left the ptomaine theory obsolete, though as recently as 1882 the Merck's Bulletin stated, "We name such products of bacterial origin ptomaines; and the special alkaloid produced by the comma bacillus is variously named Cadaverine, Putrescine, etc."[42] In pop culture, the phrase appeared in the 1955 NBC radio drama X Minus One episode "The Parade". The phrase also appeared in the 1959 TV series Leave It to Beaver episode "Teacher Comes to Dinner", with the Beaver thinking it was Toenail Poisoning.


Incubation period[edit]

The delay between consumption of a contaminated food and appearance of the first symptoms of illness is called the incubation period. This ranges from hours to days (and rarely months or even years, such as in the case of Listeriosis or Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease), depending on the agent, and on how much was consumed. If symptoms occur within 1–6 hours after eating the food, it suggests that it is caused by a bacterial toxin or a chemical rather than live bacteria.
The long incubation period of many foodborne illnesses tends to cause sufferers to attribute their symptoms to stomach flu.
During the incubation period, microbes pass through the stomach into the intestine, attach to the cells lining the intestinal walls, and begin to multiply there. Some types of microbes stay in the intestine, some produce a toxin that is absorbed into the bloodstream, and some can directly invade the deeper body tissues. The symptoms produced depend on the type of microbe.[43]

Infectious dose[edit]

The infectious dose is the amount of agent that must be consumed to give rise to symptoms of foodborne illness, and varies according to the agent and the consumer's age and overall health. In the case of Salmonella a relatively large inoculum of 1 million to 1 billion organisms is necessary to produce symptoms in healthy human volunteers [2], as Salmonellae are very sensitive to acid. An unusually high stomach pH level (low acidity) greatly reduces the number of bacteria required to cause symptoms by a factor of between 10 and 100.


United States[edit]

In the United States, using FoodNet data from 2000–2007, the CDCP estimated there were 47.8 million foodborne illnesses per year (16,000 cases for 100,000 inhabitants)[44] with 9.4 million of these caused by 31 known identified pathogens.[45]
  • 127,839 were hospitalized (43 per 100,000 inhabitants).[46][47]
  • 3,037 people died (1.0 per 100,000 inhabitants).[46][47]


This data pertains to reported medical cases of 23 specific pathogens, as opposed to total population estimates of all food-borne illness for the United States.
In France, for 750,000 cases (1210 per 100,000 inhabitants):
  • 70,000 people consulted in the emergency department of an hospital (113 per 100,000 inhabitants.);
  • 113,000 people were hospitalized (182 per 100,000 inhabitants);
  • 460 people died (0.75 per 100,000 inhabitants).


In Australia, there are an estimated 5.4 million cases of food-borne illness every year, causing:[50]
  • 18,000 hospitalizations
  • 120 deaths (0.5 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants)
  • 2.1 million lost days off work
  • 1.2 million doctor consultations
  • 300,000 prescriptions for antibiotics

Comparison between countries[edit]

CountryAnnual deaths per 100,000 inhabitantsAnnual hospitalization per 100,000 inhabitants


The vast majority of reported cases of foodborne illness occur as individual or sporadic cases. The origin of most sporadic cases is undetermined. In the United States, where people eat outside the home frequently, 58% of cases originate from commercial food facilities (2004 FoodNet data). An outbreak is defined as occurring when two or more people experience similar illness after consuming food from a common source.
Often, a combination of events contributes to an outbreak, for example, food might be left at room temperature for many hours, allowing bacteria to multiply which is compounded by inadequate cooking which results in a failure to kill the dangerously elevated bacterial levels.
Outbreaks are usually identified when those affected know each other. However, more and more, outbreaks are identified by public health staff from unexpected increases in laboratory results for certain strains of bacteria. Outbreak detection and investigation in the United States is primarily handled by local health jurisdictions and is inconsistent from district to district. It is estimated that 1–2% of outbreaks are detected.

Society and culture[edit]

Global impact[edit]

Many outbreaks of foodborne diseases that were once contained within a small community may now take place on global dimensions. Food safety authorities all over the world have acknowledged that ensuring food safety must not only be tackled at the national level but also through closer linkages among food safety authorities at the international level. This is important for exchanging routine information on food safety issues and to have rapid access to information in case of food safety emergencies.[citation needed]
It is difficult to estimate the global incidence of foodborne disease, but it has been reported that in the year 2000 about 2.1 million children died from diarrhoeal diseases.[51] Many of these cases have been attributed to contamination of food and drinking water. Additionally, diarrhea is a major cause of malnutrition in infants and young children.
Even in industrialized countries, up to 30% of the population of people have been reported to suffer from foodborne diseases every year. In the U.S, around 76 million cases of foodborne diseases, which resulted in 325,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths, are estimated to occur each year. Developing countries in particular are worst affected by foodborne illnesses due to the presence of a wide range of diseases, including those caused by parasites. Foodborne illnesses can and did inflict serious and extensive harm on society. In 1994, an outbreak of salmonellosis due to contaminated ice cream occurred in the USA, affecting an estimated 224,000 people. In 1988, an outbreak of hepatitis A, resulting from the consumption of contaminated clams, affected some 300,000 individuals in China.[52]
Food contamination creates an enormous social and economic strain on societies. In the U.S., diseases caused by the major pathogens alone are estimated to cost up to US $35 billion annually (1997) in medical costs and lost productivity. The re-emergence of cholera in Peru in 1991 resulted in the loss of US $500 million in fish and fishery product exports that year.[citation needed]
Foodborne illness may carry long-term effects.[53]
Millions of people each year contract epilepsy, anaphylactic shock, amoebic dysentery and other ailments from the top 10 foodborne parasites, prompting the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene to rank the parasites and set guidelines on how to combat them. In a report released in June 2014, the committee said it wanted to increase awareness among policy-makers, the media and the general public about parasites, describing them as a "major public health issue."

United Kingdom[edit]

In postwar Aberdeen (1964) a large scale (>400 cases) outbreak of Typhoid occurred, this was caused by contaminated corned beef which had been imported from Argentina[54] The corned beef was placed in cans and because the cooling plant had failed, cold river water from the Plate estuary was used to cool the cans. One of the cans had a defect and the meat inside was contaminated. This meat was then sliced using a meat slicer in a shop in Aberdeen, and a lack of cleaning the machinery led to spreading the contamination to other meats cut in the slicer. These meats were then eaten by the people of Aberdeen who then became ill.
In the UK serious outbreaks of food-borne illness since the 1970s prompted key changes in UK food safety law. These included the death of 19 patients in the Stanley Royd Hospital outbreak [3] and the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, mad cow disease) outbreak identified in the 1980s. The death of 17 people in the 1996 Wishaw outbreak of E. coli O157 [4] was a precursor to the establishment of the Food Standards Agency which, according to Tony Blair in the 1998 white paper A Force for Change Cm 3830 "would be powerful, open and dedicated to the interests of consumers".[55]

United States[edit]

In 2001, the Center for Science in the Public Interest petitioned the United States Department of Agriculture to require meat packers to remove spinal cords before processing cattle carcasses for human consumption, a measure designed to lessen the risk of infection by variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The petition was supported by the American Public Health Association, the Consumer Federation of America, the Government Accountability Project, the National Consumers League, and Safe Tables Our Priority. This was opposed by the National Cattlemen's Beef Association, the National Renderers Association, the National Meat Association, the Pork Producers Council, sheep raisers, milk producers, the Turkey Federation, and eight other organizations from the animal-derived food industry. This was part of a larger controversy regarding the United States' violation of World Health Organization proscriptions to lessen the risk of infection by variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.[citation needed]
None of the US Department of Health and Human Services targets[56] regarding incidence of foodborne infections were reached in 2007.[57]


The World Health Organization Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses (FOS) provides scientific advice for organizations and the public on issues concerning the safety of food. Its mission is to lower the burden of foodborne disease, thereby strengthening the health security and sustainable development of Member States. Foodborne and waterborne diarrhoeal diseases kill an estimated 2.2 million people annually, most of whom are children. WHO works closely with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) to address food safety issues along the entire food production chain—from production to consumption—using new methods of risk analysis. These methods provide efficient, science-based tools to improve food safety, thereby benefiting both public health and economic development.

International Food Safety Authorities Network (INFOSAN)[edit]

The International Food Safety Authorities Network (INFOSAN) is a joint program of the WHO and FAO. INFOSAN has been connecting national authorities from around the globe since 2004, with the goal of preventing the international spread of contaminated food and foodborne disease and strengthening food safety systems globally. This is done by:
  1. Promoting the rapid exchange of information during food safety events;
  2. Sharing information on important food safety issues of global interest;
  3. Promoting partnership and collaboration between countries; and
  4. Helping countries strengthen their capacity to manage food safety risks.
Membership to INFOSAN is voluntary, but is restricted to representatives from national and regional government authorities and requires an official letter of designation. INFOSAN seeks to reflect the multidisciplinary nature of food safety and promote intersectoral collaboration by requesting the designation of Focal Points in each of the respective national authorities with a stake in food safety, and a single Emergency Contact Point in the national authority with the responsibility for coordinating national food safety emergencies; countries choosing to be members of INFOSAN are committed to sharing information between their respective food safety authorities and other INFOSAN members. The operational definition of a food safety authority includes those authorities involved in: food policy; risk assessment; food control and management; food inspection services; foodborne disease surveillance and response; laboratory services for monitoring and surveillance of foods and foodborne diseases; and food safety information, education and communication across the farm-to-table continuum.

Regulatory steps[edit]

Food may be contaminated during all stages of food production and retailing. In order to prevent viral contamination, regulatory authorities in Europe have enacted several measures:
  • European Commission Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 of 15 November 2005
  • European Committee for Standardization (CEN): Standard method for the detection of norovirus and hepatitis A virus in food products (shellfish, fruits and vegetables, surfaces and bottled water)
  • CODEX Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH): Guideline for the application of general principles of food hygiene for the control of viruses in food[58]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "food poisoning" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  2. ^ US CDC food poisoning guide
  3. ^ For foodborne illness caused by chemicals, see Food contaminants.
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ Humphrey T, O'Brien S, Madsen M (July 2007). "Campylobacters as zoonotic pathogens: a food production perspective". International Journal of Food Microbiology 117 (3): 237–57. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2007.01.006. PMID 17368847. 
  6. ^ USDA. "Foodborne Illness: What Consumers Need to Know". Retrieved 2008. 
  7. ^ Tribe, Ingrid G; Cowell, David; Cameron, Peter; Cameron, Scott (2002). "An outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 135 infection linked to the consumption of raw shell eggs in an aged care facility". Communicable Diseases Intelligence 26 (1): 38–9. PMID 11950200. 
  8. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Salmonella Infection (salmonellosis) and Animals <internet>". Retrieved 12 August 2007. 
  9. ^ "Reducing the carriage of foodborne pathogens in livestock and poultry." 85 (6). Jun 2006. pp. 960–73. PMID 16776463. 
  10. ^ Food poisoning: Causes. Mayo Clinic.
  11. ^ a b Argudín MÁ, Mendoza MC, Rodicio MR (July 2010). "Food poisoning and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins". Toxins (Basel) 2 (7): 1751–73. doi:10.3390/toxins2071751. PMC 3153270. PMID 22069659. 
  12. ^ Staphylococcus aureus: A Problem When Food Is Left Out Too Long. Ohio State University Extension HYG-5564-11].
  13. ^ "FDA Says Viruses Safe for Treating Meat". Archived from the original on 2006-08-25. Retrieved 2014-09-02. 
  14. ^
  15. ^ E. Mount, Michael. "Fungi and Mycotoxins <internet>" (PDF). Retrieved 11 August 2007. 
  16. ^ Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition. "Aflatoxins <internet>". Retrieved 12 August 2007. 
  17. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. "GASGA Technical Leaflet - 3 Mycotoxins in Grain <internet>". Retrieved 12 August 2007. 
  18. ^ World Health Organization. "Chapter 2 Foodborne Hazards in Basic Food Safety for Health Workers <internet>" (PDF). Retrieved 12 August 2007. 
  19. ^ Food and Drug Administration. "Sec. 683.100 Action Levels for Aflatoxins in Animal Feeds (CPG 7126.33) <internet>". Retrieved 13 August 2007. 
  20. ^ Henry, Michael H. "Mycotoxins in Feeds: CVM’s Perspective <internet>". Retrieved 1 January 2012. 
  21. ^ Webley DJ, Jackson KL, Mullins JD, Hocking AD, Pitt JI (1997). "Alternaria toxins in weather-damaged wheat and sorghum in the 1995–1996 Australian harvest". Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 48 (8): 1249–56. doi:10.1071/A97005. 
  22. ^ Li F, Yoshizawa T (July 2000). "Alternaria mycotoxins in weathered wheat from China". J. Agric. Food Chem. 48 (7): 2920–4. doi:10.1021/jf0000171. PMID 10898645. 
  23. ^ Motta SD, Valente Soares LM (July 2001). "Survey of Brazilian tomato products for alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, tenuazonic acid and cyclopiazonic acid". Food Addit Contam 18 (7): 630–4. doi:10.1080/02652030117707. PMID 11469319. 
  24. ^ Li FQ, Toyazaki N, Yoshizawa T (April 2001). "Production of alternaria mycotoxins by Alternaria alternata isolated from weather-damaged wheat". J. Food Prot. 64 (4): 567–71. PMID 11307900. 
  25. ^ Marasas WF (1995). "Fumonisins: their implications for human and animal health". Nat. Toxins 3 (4): 193–8; discussion 221. doi:10.1002/nt.2620030405. PMID 7582616. 
  26. ^ Soriano, J.M. (2004). "Occurrence of fumonisins in foods". Food Research International 37 (10): 985–1000. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2004.06.009. 
  27. ^ Food and Drug Administration. "CVM and Fumonisins <internet>". Archived from the original on 12 August 2007. Retrieved 13 August 2007. 
  28. ^ Food Standards Agency. "More contaminated maize meal products withdrawn from sale <internet>". Retrieved 12 August 2007. 
  29. ^ Food Standards Australia New Zealand. "20th Australian Total Diet Survey – Part B <internet>". Retrieved 13 August 2007. 
  30. ^ a b FAO FOOD AND NUTRITION PAPER 81. "Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins in food and feed in 2003 <internet>". Retrieved 13 August 2007. 
  31. ^ Food and Drug Administration. "Patulin in Apple Juice, Apple Juice Concentrates and Apple Juice Products <internet>". Retrieved 16 August 2007. 
  32. ^ Sabater-Vilar M, Nijmeijer S, Fink-Gremmels J (November 2003). "Genotoxicity assessment of five tremorgenic mycotoxins (fumitremorgen B, paxilline, penitrem A, verruculogen, and verrucosidin) produced by molds isolated from fermented meats". J. Food Prot. 66 (11): 2123–9. PMID 14627292. 
  33. ^ Adejumo TO, Hettwer U, Karlovsky P (May 2007). "Occurrence of Fusarium species and trichothecenes in Nigerian maize". Int. J. Food Microbiol. 116 (3): 350–7. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2007.02.009. PMID 17412440. 
  34. ^ Mazur LJ, Kim J (December 2006). "Spectrum of noninfectious health effects from molds". Pediatrics 118 (6): e1909–26. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-2829. PMID 17142508. 
  35. ^ Froquet R, Sibiril Y, Parent-Massin D (February 2001). "Trichothecene toxicity on human megakaryocyte progenitors (CFU-MK)". Hum Exp Toxicol 20 (2): 84–9. doi:10.1191/096032701677428611. PMID 11327514. 
  36. ^ Joffe AZ, Yagen B (February 1977). "Comparative study of the yield of T-2 toxic produced by Fusarium poae, F. sporotrichioides and F. sporotrichioides var. tricinctum strains from different sources". Mycopathologia 60 (2): 93–7. doi:10.1007/bf00490378. PMID 846559. 
  37. ^ Hay, Rod J.; B. Yagen. "Fusarium infections of the skin <internet>". Retrieved 12 August 2007. 
  38. ^ Food and Drug Administration. "Guidance for Industry and FDA - Letter to State Agricultural Directors, State Feed Control Officials, and Food, Feed, and Grain Trade Organizations <internet>". Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 13 August 2007. 
  39. ^ Hohn, Thomas M. "Trichothecene-resistant transgenic plants <internet>". Retrieved 13 August 2007. 
  40. ^ Dubois E, Hennechart C, Deboosère N, et al. (April 2006). "Intra-laboratory validation of a concentration method adapted for the enumeration of infectious F-specific RNA coliphage, enterovirus, and hepatitis A virus from inoculated leaves of salad vegetables". Int. J. Food Microbiol. 108 (2): 164–71. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2005.11.007. PMID 16387377. 
  41. ^ Schmidt, Heather Martin. "Improving the microbilological quality and safety of fresh-cut tomatoes by low dose dlectron beam irradiation - Master thesis <internet>" (PDF). Retrieved 11 August 2007. 
  42. ^ Merck's Bulletin, Volume 5, William Henry Porter, 1892.
  43. ^ "Food-Related Diseases". 
  44. ^ Scallan E, Griffin PM, Angulo FJ, Tauxe RV, Hoekstra RM (2011). "Foodborne illness acquired in the United States—unspecified agents". Emerging Infectious Diseases 17 (1): 16–22. doi:10.3201/eid1701.P21101. PMC 3204615. PMID 21192849. 
  45. ^ a b c Scallan E, Hoekstra RM, Angulo FJ, Tauxe RV, Widdowson M-A, Roy SL, et al. (2011). "Foodborne illness acquired in the United States—major pathogens". Emerging Infectious Diseases 17 (1): 7–15. doi:10.3201/eid1701.P11101. PMC 3375761. PMID 21192848. 
  46. ^ a b Sabrina Tavernise (July 26, 2013). "F.D.A. Says Importers Must Audit Food Safety". New York Times. Retrieved 2013-07-27. One in every six Americans becomes ill from eating contaminated food each year, Dr. Margaret A. Hamburg, F.D.A. commissioner, estimated. About 130,000 are hospitalized and 3,000 die. 
  47. ^ a b Stephanie Strom (January 4, 2013). "F.D.A. Offers Sweeping Rules to Fight Food Contamination". New York Times. Retrieved 2013-01-05. One in six Americans becomes ill from eating contaminated food each year, the government estimates; of those, roughly 130,000 are hospitalized and 3,000 die. 
  48. ^ "Report of the French sanitary agencies" (PDF) (in French). INVS/Afssa. 
  49. ^ "Summary of Report of the French sanitary agencies" (PDF) (in French). INVS/Afssa. 
  50. ^ "Food borne illness in Australia" (PDF). OzFoodNet. 
  51. ^ Parashar, Umesh D.; Hummelman, Erik G.; Bresee, Joseph S.; Miller, Mark A.; Glass, Roger I. (May 2003). "Global Illness and Deaths Caused by Rotavirus Disease in Children". Emerging Infectious Diseases 9 (5): 565–72. doi:10.3201/eid0905.020562. PMID 12737740. 
  52. ^ " World Health Organization
  53. ^ Most people think of foodborne illness as an unpleasant few days of fever and diarrhea, but for some there may be lifelong consequences March 29, 2012
  54. ^ David F. Smith, H. Lesley Diack, and T. Hugh Pennington: Food Poisoning, Policy and Politics : Corned Beef and Typhoid in Britain in the 1960s, Boydell Press, July 15, 2005, ISBN 1-84383-138-4[page needed]
  55. ^ A Force for Change Cm 3830
  56. ^ Healthy People 2010 Home Page
  57. ^ "Preliminary FoodNet data on the incidence of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food—10 states, 2007". MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 57 (14): 366–70. April 2008. PMID 18401330. 
  58. ^ Viral agents in food - The overlooked risk SGS Consumer Compact Bulletin, Retrieved 11/13/2012

Further reading[edit]



External links[edit]