Monday, 22 September 2014

Fungi and lung disease - HIV, when are they going to join up the dots, I have

See also the separate article on Systemic Mycoses.
Fungi may cause lung disease through direct infection of pulmonary tissue, through infection of pulmonary air spaces/lung cavities, or through their ability to trigger an immunological reaction when fungal material is inhaled. The latter mechanism is involved in cases of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, aspergillus-induced asthma and extrinsic allergic alveolitis due to fungi (eg, maltworker's lung, farmer's lung). This article will concentrate on those diseases caused by direct fungal infection of the lung (fungal pneumonias).
With the exception of aspergillosis, these infections are usually not present to any significant degree in immunocompetent residents of the UK. They are more likely to affect those who have travelled abroad to areas where they are endemic, or arise as opportunistic infections in patients who are immunocompromised as a result of oncological treatment, due to immunomodulation following solid organ transplantation, or HIV infection. Pulmonary infection occurs after inhalation of spores/conidia, or by the reactivation of latent infection. Haematogenous dissemination of fungal infection leading to a systemic mycosis tends to occur chiefly in immunocompromised patients.[1]
Endemic fungal pneumonia pathogens:
  • Histoplasma capsulatum causing histoplasmosis.
  • Coccidioides immitis causing coccidioidomycosis.
  • Blastomyces dermatitidis causing blastomycosis.
  • Paracoccidioides brasiliensis causing paracoccidioidomycosis.
Opportunistic fungal pneumonia pathogens:
  • Candida spp. causing candidiasis.
  • Aspergillus spp. causing aspergillosis.
  • Mucor spp. causing mucormycosis.
  • Cryptococcus neoformans causing cryptococcosis.
In the UK the endemic fungi are exceedingly rare and occur only in returning travellers. The endemic fungi are distributed in the Americas in the valleys of the Mississippi and Ohio rivers (histoplasmosis and blastomycosis), the Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico (coccidioidomycosis) and Central and South America (paracoccidioidomycosis). In Africa histoplasmosis is found in the equatorial regions.
The opportunistic pathogens are ubiquitously distributed and may cause disease in those with immunosuppression. There are few figures for their incidence in the population at large in the UK. A recent review estimates that 15-18.3% of HIV-infected patients admitted to hospital will suffer a nosocomial pulmonary infection. Of these, a small but significant proportion (around 5-10%) will be due to opportunistic fungal pneumonias.[2]

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Risk factors

  • Travel to an area where fungal pneumonia pathogens are endemic (see above).
  • Regular exposure to bird, bat or rodent droppings in endemic areas.
  • Any cause of immunocompromise, for opportunistic infections.
  • Endemic fungal infections seem to be more common in men than in women, as oestrogen is thought to exert an inhibitory effect on the growth cycle of fungi.[1]


  • Fever - persistent fever in the immunocompromised should always raise the suspicion of opportunistic pulmonary or systemic fungal infection.
  • Cough which is usually dry.
  • Chest discomfort (dull and poorly localised or focal and pleuritic).
  • Progressive dyspnoea, particularly on exertion.
  • Haemoptysis is a relatively common symptom of invasive aspergillosis/mucormycosis.
  • Endemic mycoses may cause lymphadenopathy and obstruction of large airways through pressure effects.
  • Endemic mycoses have a predilection for causing symptoms of 'rheumatological' syndromes - eg, arthritis/arthralgia, erythema multiforme, erythema nodosum, pericarditis.
  • Endemic mycoses may also cause symptoms by haematogenous dissemination to skin, brain/meninges, bone and joints and full-blown septicaemia.
  • Infections with Aspergillus and Candida spp. and other opportunistic fungi may cause symptoms of hypersensitivity reactions - eg, allergic asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, extrinsic allergic alveolitides.
  • Symptoms due to other sites of extrapulmonary involvement (particularly in the immunocompromised) - eg, meningoencephalitis/brain abscess, skin lesions, kidneys, liver, muscles, endophthalmitis, nasal passages and sinuses, systemic sepsis affecting blood and bone marrow.


  • Fever.
  • Tachycardia.
  • Tachypnoea.
  • Wheeze.
  • Signs of focal pulmonary consolidation - eg, reduced expansion, dullness to percussion and bronchial breathing.
  • Signs of bronchial obstruction if thoracic lymphadenopathy is significant.
  • Signs of pleural effusion.
  • Seek signs of extrapulmonary involvement - eg, skin lesions, signs of meningism, joint pain or swelling, retinal lesions on ophthalmoscopy.
The diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, histoplasmosis and blastomycosis, has improved with the use of easily performed antigen detection systems in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.
  • FBC:
    • Raised WCC in immunocompetent patients.
    • Eosinophilia may predominate.
    • Progressive neutropenia or leukopenia in an unwell immunocompromised host suggests systemic candidiasis/aspergillosis.
  • CXR:
    • May show patchy infiltration, nodules, consolidation, cavitation or pleural effusion.
    • Pronounced mediastinal lymphadenopathy - some endemic fungal pneumonias.
    • Miliary pattern pulmonary infiltration in extensive disease.
  • Blood cultures (may require specific fungal culture bottles).
  • Urine/sputum/invasive catheter cultures (potassium hydroxide staining can be used for sputum but may detect colonising rather than invasive species).
  • CT/MRI scanning of thorax:
    • Early chest CT scan in immunocompromised patients suspected of having invasive fungal pneumonia can help identify and treat disease early, leading to an improved outcome.[4]
    • Halo sign: ground-glass opacity surrounding a pulmonary nodule or mass. Most commonly associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.[5]
    • Reversed halo sign: focal rounded area of ground-glass opacity surrounded by a crescent or complete ring of consolidation. Most often associated with pulmonary mucormycosis.[5]
  • Bronchoscopy - to obtain bronchoalveolar lavage/transbronchial biopsy specimens for fungal staining and culture.
  • Transthoracic fine-needle biopsy - usually radiologically guided to biopsy nodules for staining/histology/culture.
  • Open lung biopsy - used occasionally.
  • Lumbar puncture in cases of suspected meningeal involvement.
  • Bone marrow aspiration/biopsy in immunocompromised patients with suspected disseminated disease.
  • Biopsy of any skin lesions.
  • Joint aspiration if joint effusion.
  • There are specific antigen-detection tests, PCR techniques and ELISA assays and serial serology available to detect specific pathogens - seek microbiological advice on the most appropriate test in the clinical context.
It is also important to think of why the patient might be immunosuppressed. There are other illnesses that may explain the reason for immunosuppression - eg, previously unknown TB, diabetes and HIV. Thus history, examination and investigations also need to be tailored to try to determine the cause of immunosuppression. TB should be particularly sought after as it is an important differential diagnosis.
  • In immunocompromised patients, factors that are contributing to the illness, such as chemotherapy, steroids, indwelling venous catheters, etc, need to be addressed where possible.
  • Immunocompromised patients may benefit from the use of colony-stimulating factors to boost immune cell production.
  • The new azoles (eg, voriconazole) are most often used. Amphotericin is now less often used, and when used is often given as lipid formulation to decrease toxicity.[3]
  • British National Formulary recommendations:[6]
    • Amphotericin or caspofungin are used for the empirical treatment of serious fungal infections.
    • Aspergillosis: voriconazole is the treatment of choice; liposomal amphotericin is an alternative first-line treatment when voriconazole cannot be used. Caspofungin, itraconazole or posaconazole can be used in patients who are refractory to, or intolerant of voriconazole and liposomal amphotericin. Itraconazole is also used for the treatment of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis.
    • Invasive or disseminated candidiasis: an echinocandin (eg, anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin) can be used. Fluconazole is an alternative for clinically stable patients. Amphotericin is an alternative when an echinocandin or fluconazole cannot be used. In refractory cases, flucytosine can be used with intravenous amphotericin.
    • Cryptococcosis is usually treated with amphotericin and flucytosine, followed by fluconazole for eight weeks or until cultures are negative.
    • Histoplasmosis: itraconazole can be used for immunocompetent patients. Amphotericin is preferred for patients with fulminant or severe infections. Following successful treatment, itraconazole can be used for prophylaxis against relapse until immunity recovers.
  • Cardiothoracic surgery may be needed to resect infiltrated/necrotic pulmonary tissue as an adjunct to antifungal therapy, or to treat some complications such as massive haemoptysis and pulmonary abscesses.
  • Dissemination of fungal infection to other sites such as the brain, meninges, skin, liver, kidneys, adrenal glands, heart, eyes, spleen.
  • Progressive respiratory failure.
  • Systemic fungaemia and septic shock.
  • Blood vessel invasion causing massive haemoptysis, pulmonary infarction, myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction/embolism.
  • Associated rheumatological complex/pericarditis with endemic fungal pneumonias.
  • Lung cavitation.
  • Development of mycetoma in a lung cavity.
  • Local pulmonary damage causing bronchopleural or tracheo-oesophageal fistulas, mediastinal fibrosis, calcification in pulmonary tree, chronic pulmonary symptoms.
  • Immunological reaction to fungal antigens.
  • Fungal endocarditis.
  • This is highly variable in cases of opportunistic infection, depending on the cause and degree of immunocompromise, comorbidities and speed of recognition of pulmonary fungal infection.
  • Overall mortality is relatively high (probably >50% in immunocompromised patients).
  • Mortality for untreated disseminated histoplasmosis is ~80%, reduced to ~25% with treatment.[1]
  • Aspergillosis and mucormycosis have mortality rates of 50-85% in transplant recipients, especially after bone marrow transplantation.[1]
  • Coccidioidomycosis has a mortality rate as high as 70% in patients with AIDS.[1]
  • HIV patients are routinely treated with prophylactic antifungal drugs to try to avoid infection with opportunistic fungal pathogens, particularly Cryptococcus neoformans.
  • Transplant patients may also benefit from prophylactic antifungal agents.[7]
  • Fluconazole has shown some benefits as prophylaxis against invasive fungal infections in transplant patients.[7]
  • Patients likely to have prolonged neutropenia should avoid activities that increase exposure to environmental fungal spores, such as gardening or working with potted plants and fresh flowers, cleaning, building work and handling uncooked vegetables.

Further reading & references

  • King JW et al; Cryptococcosis, Medscape, Oct 2012
  • Limper AH, Knox KS, Sarosi GA, et al; An official American Thoracic Society statement: Treatment of fungal infections in adult pulmonary and critical care patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Jan 1;183(1):96-128. doi: 10.1164/rccm.2008-740ST.
  1. Mandanas R; Overview of Fungal Pneumonia, Medscape, Mar 2011
  2. Petrosillo N, Nicastri E, Viale P; Nosocomial pulmonary infections in HIV-positive patients. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2005 May;11(3):231-5.
  3. Smith JA, Kauffman CA; Pulmonary fungal infections. Respirology. 2012 Aug;17(6):913-26. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1843.2012.02150.x.
  4. Marom EM, Kontoyiannis DP; Imaging studies for diagnosing invasive fungal pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2011 Aug;24(4):309-14. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0b013e328348b2e1.
  5. Georgiadou SP, Sipsas NV, Marom EM, et al; The diagnostic value of halo and reversed halo signs for invasive mold infections in compromised hosts. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 May;52(9):1144-55. doi: 10.1093/cid/cir122.
  6. British National Formulary; 64th Edition (Sep 2012) British Medical Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, London
  7. Playford EG, Webster AC, Sorrell TC, et al; Systematic review and meta-analysis of antifungal agents for preventing fungal infections in liver transplant recipients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006 Sep;25(9):549-61.
Disclaimer: This article is for information only and should not be used for the diagnosis or treatment of medical conditions. EMIS has used all reasonable care in compiling the information but make no

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Is the followiing why we have eating disorders


Is Candida Contributing to Your Inability to Lose Weight?

Kara Bauer Health Guide December 11, 2009
  • Many people who struggle with weight loss also find that they are unable to control their cravings for sugar-based products, which include both simple sugars (baked goods, candy, soda and most of today’s processed foods) and refined carbohydrates (white varieties of rice, pasta, bread, bagels, crackers and cookies).

    Although there are many reasons for sugar cravings and failed attempts at weight loss, one possible diagnosis worth looking into for those with severe weight challenges is a condition called Candida.

    Candida or Candidiasis is an overgrowth of yeast in the body that can cause an array of symptoms such as digestive and urinary problems, irritability, fogginess, frequent or persistent fungal infections, depression, a weakened immune system, food allergies or intolerances, a strong sensitivity to odors, intense cravings for sugar and breads, and many others.

    Although the presence of healthy intestinal flora is a necessity for protecting our digestive tract, Candida yeast overgrowth is primarily caused by years of antibiotic treatments that wipe out both good and bad strains of bacteria in our efforts to treat sickness and chronic health conditions. Poor diet, stress, and lack of sleep are also contributors to creating an internal environment prone to bacterial growth and disease.

    Even though there are cases where antibiotics are the best treatment option, many of us have become accustomed to taking them every time we are sick, regardless of whether bacteria is the cause. As a result, our intestinal flora is severely imbalanced, which impacts our digestive and immune systems and creates an environment for yeast to flourish as well as toxins to more easily enter our bloodstream. What makes matters worse is that yeast feeds on sugar. Therefore as the yeast becomes excessive, sugar cravings intensify and our susceptibility to sickness increases, thus creating a never-ending cycle of weight and health problems.

    There are many questionnaires available in books and online to help you determine whether Candida may be impacting your weight and health. The most important course of treatment is to heal the gut, which can be extremely beneficial whether you have Candida or not. Although there are some variations of opinion on the best way to go about treating Candida and Candida-related conditions, changing your diet and reintroducing healthy bacteria is an essential course of action to producing long-term relief.

    The key dietary recommendation when treating Candida is to avoid sugar. As yeast feeds on sugar, the only way to eliminate it is to literally starve it. This means eliminating all sugars from your diet including bread, pasta, grains (with the exception of quinoa, amaranth, millet and buckwheat which don’t contain gluten), alcohol, natural sweeteners, most dairy products, mushrooms, refined oils and any yeast containing products. It’s also good to initially avoid fruits, beans, nuts and fermented products until you feel that your body can tolerate them without producing symptoms. The main thing to focus on is eating plenty of fresh organic vegetables and sea vegetables in addition to gluten-free grains and animal protein in small quantities.

  • In addition to diet, it’s important to reintroduce healthy bacteria through probiotics and raw saltless sauerkraut, which you can even make at home. There are also many herbal supplements that can help with the yeast elimination process. It’s also valuable to practice proper food combining as some foods eaten together can cause delayed digestion and fermentation in the stomach and digestive tract. This means eating fruits alone, when tolerated, and not combining animal proteins or beans with starchy vegetables or grains.

    Although healing the body from the effects of Candida can seem like a daunting task at first, I feel that the benefits far outweigh the challenges. If approached properly, some people can eventually create an internal environment strong enough to tolerate some of their old favorites occasionally and in small quantities. The most important thing to remember is that each person is different and as with all dietary approaches, it’s crucial to develop your self-awareness so that you can easily determine what does and doesn’t work for you individually. If Candida is indeed contributing to your inability to lose weight despite your best efforts to do so, I hope that sharing this information with you has been eye opening and helpful.
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study on mice very worrying, very worrying indeed

By: Rachael Rettner, MyHealthNewsDaily Staff Writer
Published: 02/03/2012 09:08 AM EST on MyHealthNewsDaily
We've heard obesity can be "spread" between friends when we copy each other's eating habits, but a new study in mice suggests obesity could actually be infectious.

That's right, infectious. As in, something you can catch.

In the study, mice engineered to have a particular immune deficiency developed fatty liver disease and got fatter when fed a Western-style diet. But strikingly, when these immune-deficient mice were put in the same cage as healthy mice, the healthy mice started to come down with symptoms of liver disease, and also got fatter.

The culprit? Microbes in the stomachs of the mice. Because the mice had their immune systems disturbed, the bacteria in their guts got "out of wack," said study researcher Richard Flavell, a professor of immunobiology at Yale School of Medicine. We normally live in symbiosis with the bacteria in our guts, but in the study, the number of "bad," disease-associated bacteria increased 1,000-fold in mice with immune problems, Flavell said.

And it's these bad bacteria that were transmitted from mouse to mouse, causing the healthy mice to also experience changes in their gut microbes -- and making them fat.

"We could make a mouse fatter just by putting it in the same cage as the other mouse," Flavell said.

The crucial question is: Could this happen in people?

It's possible, but we'll need much more research to find out, Flavell said. The contagiousness of obesity  seen in this study is probably more likely in mice than in people because mice eat each other's poop, a very efficient way to transmit gut bacteria (add this to your list of reasons not to eat poop).

At minimum, the study suggests "this should be very seriously looked at in people," Flavell said. Fatty liver disease is very common among obese people, affecting 75 percent to 100 percent of the obese population, the researchers say. In about 20 percent of these individuals, the disease progresses and becomes severe.

Previously, if two family members living in the same household both developed liver disease or became obese, people would have blamed genetics. But the new study suggests the environment may play a role as well.

If the findings apply to people, they would suggest we need to take approaches to obesity and fatty liver disease that address gut microorganisms — perhaps antibiotics or probiotics — in addition to traditional treatments, Flavell said.

"This is a very thought-provoking study that underlines the role of the bugs that we all carry inside us in determining our susceptibility to liver disease and its complications," said Dr. Jasmohan Bajaj, an associate  professor of gastroenterology, hepatology and nutrition at Virginia Commonwealth University,  who was not involved in the study.  More work is needed in humans, who are much more complex than mice, to understand the role of gut bacteria in liver disease, but "these experiments form a key step forward," Bajaj said.

The study was published online Feb. 1 in the journal Nature.

Pass it on: Alterations in gut microbes may increase the susceptibility to obesity and fatty liver disease and also make it possible to spread these diseases, at least in mice.

Follow MyHealthNewsDaily staff writer Rachael Rettner on Twitter @RachaelRettner. Find us on Facebook.

4 Reasons why it's hard to lose weight, you need to kill your Candida cure the problem and not the symptom

One of the symptoms of systemic Candida is weight gain, or difficulty losing weight. It can cause the kind of stubborn fat deposits that are hard to shake off, no matter how little you eat or how much exercise you do.
There are a couple of reasons for this, but first it’s important to understand that no diet is going to help. Treating the underlying cause of the problem – the Candida overgrowth – is the way to get back in shape. Candida can lead to excess fat deposits in a few different ways. Read on below to find out more.

Candida Toxins

Candida cells are constantly reproducing and dying. This does not happen only during Candida Die-Off. Even if you are not treating your Candida at all, the natural life cycle of this yeast means that toxins from dying Candida cells are constantly being released into your bloodstream. Why does this matter? Well, your liver has to process these toxins and expel them from your body. If your liver becomes overloaded (i.e. there are too many toxins in your bloodstream), then it has to store these nasty chemicals somewhere else for processing later. Your liver does this by storing them in fat cells, primarily around the hips, belly and thighs. For many dieters, this is the root cause of those abnormal fat deposits.

Sugar Cravings

Candida needs sugar to grow and reproduce, sugar that comes from the foods we eat. A typical symptom of a Candida infestation is that the patient is eating lots of sugar and carbs but still craving more. In Candida sufferers, this is far more than just a psychological addiction to sugar. The Candida yeast is processing large amounts of sugar and sending your blood sugar levels lower, triggering signals from your brain that you need to eat more. This is one way that Candida can cause overeating.

Stress On Your Immune System

The toxic byproducts of Candida can trigger a response from your immune system. Stress on the adrenal glands raises cortisol levels, an emergency response which prompts your body to hold on to every last piece of fat that it can.


Here’s one cause of weight gain that almost every Candida sufferer will identify with. The Candida cells release up to 79 different toxins, including a particularly nasty neurotoxin named Acetaldehyde. These toxins can cause symptoms like brain fog, fatigue and depression. Because of this, Candida sufferers often find it hard to get the exercise that they need to stay healthy and in shape.
Often a simple calorie restriction diet is treating the symptom rather than the cause of the problem. Diet advice is everywhere on the internet, but rarely do you see a treatment plan that can treat the underlying condition that is causing the weight gain. By following a good Candida treatment plan and sticking to a healthy diet, you might find it easier than you think to shake off those stubborn fat deposits.
For lots more information on the symptoms of Candida, take a look at my Ultimate Candida Diet treatment plan.

Saturday, 20 September 2014

Stress and elevated Cortisol, Tap water consumption, Drugs and alcohol, Hypothyroid, immune deficiency, Aids and cancer, hormonal imbalance,

Page: 2


Candida Albicans is a yeast that lives in our intestinal tract. It is also the yeast that causes vaginal yeast infections. It is normal to have small amounts of Candida so the friendly and protective bacteria in our body called "Acidophillus and Bifidus" can use it as food. When something happens to kill off these friendly bacteria the Candida cells begin to multiply out of control. Candida can spread throughout the intestinal tract causing bloating, gas, food reactions and allergies, constipation, diarrhea and a host of digestive complaints. Candida can also spread to the vaginal area, the prostate, the heart, lungs, liver and cause numerous symptoms and illnesses. The true causes of Candida are not a mystery. They are also not the same for each individual person. Some people have Candida due to a combination of causes. To begin with lets look at the true causes and discuss each.


Antibiotics are a common cause of Candida. Antibiotics destroy both harmful bacteria and good bacteria. When antibiotics destroy friendly bacteria it gives the Candida a chance to begin to multiply. Anyone who has been treated with antibiotics for acne, major dental work or any condition where antibiotic use has been frequent, more than 1 course of 7-10 days, is a prime candidate for Candida.


Oral birth control pills are mostly the hormone estrogen. Supplemental estrogen in the synthetic form has been found to promote the growth of yeast. Several years ago the Great Smokies Medical lab published studies showing that hormones could effect intestinal bacteria. A common compliant of women on birth control pills is yeast infection. The copper IUD is another possible yeast promoter. It has been observed by David Watts, Ph.D., that copper promotes the growth of yeast. Often copper IUD users develop excessive levels of copper in their tissues. Excess copper can depress the adrenal, thyroid and immune systems of the body. This can make it more difficult for the body to resist yeast.


Stress can cause yeast growth for several reasons. Stress causes the release of certain hormone called CORTISOL . Cortisol can depress the immune system and also raise blood sugar. The elevation in blood sugar can feed the yeast cells allowing them to grow quickly. The depression in immune function will leave the body defenseless against the sudden elevation in yeast. These two reaction tend to happen together as cortisol goes up. This is the exact reason why stress causes Candida. Cortisol can be addicting to the body. It raises sugar and relieves inflammation. There have been a few studies that show the body can become addicted to it and try to keep it elevated. There are several simple nutrients that help lower cortisol levels back to normal by telling the nervous system to relax. Testing for cortisol can be done with the Adrenocortex Stress Test.


Common tap water is high in chlorine which has been found to destroy friendly intestinal bacteria. This will allow Candida to grow as covered earlier.


Parasites and intestinal worms are more common then anyone would think. Some researchers have estimated that over 85% of all people living in North America and Canada have parasites. Parasites can be large worm-like creatures or small microscopic organisms. Either type destroy friendly bacteria in the intestines making yeast overgrowth possible. Parasites can be detected in the  Comprehensive Digestive Stool Analysis.


Constipation can be caused by Candida. However constipation can also lead to Candida. If one does not have Candida and then becomes constipated for any reason, Candida may begin to grow. A digestive tract which is constipated is slow moving and becomes very alkaline. An alkaline environment is exactly what Candida does best in. The more alkaline the digestive tract the happier the Candida becomes. It does not matter what causes the constipation. Constipation for any reason can easily cause Candida.


Excess alcohol can directly destroy friendly bacteria and allow yeast to grow. Beer can be a particular problem not because of the yeast but because of its maltose content. Maltose is a sugar that is derived from malt. Malt sugar is very potent and can feed yeast cells very quickly. People with Candida also tend to develop allergies to all yeast products whether the yeast is healthy or not. This does not mean that hard spirits or wine in excess are any safer. Alcohol should always be used in moderation. Drugs can also cause yeast overgrowth particularly if they disturb the digestive system. Any medication or drug that can cause a gastrointestinal side effect may cause yeast growth by disturbing friendly bacteria.


Low thyroid is very common in cases of Candida. The thyroid gland has an important effect on the immune system. Adequate thyroid function also helps the digestive system operate correctly. As pointed out earlier, lack of proper digestive secretions can cause reduction of friendly bacteria. Constipation is also common with low thyroid. Body temperature will drop if thyroid function is low. A drop in body temperature stops many different chemical reactions from taking place. Some of these chemical reactions stop Candida overgrowth.


Any condition that results in a weakened immune system can bring about Candida. Most notable are AIDS and CANCER. Candida can be considered a side effect of these more threatening illnesses.


It has been long recognized that an imbalance between estrogen and progesterone can be a causative factor in yeast overgrowth. In order to support friendly intestinal flora, adequate amounts of both hormones are needed. Great Smokies Medical Lab published a paper several years ago which explained how these hormones are essential to the health of friendly bacteria.

Any upset in this balance can cause yeast overgrowth. The hormonal imbalance must be corrected after the yeast has been reduced or relapse is sure to occur.


This is the most difficult case to deal with. It is essential that the diabetes be addressed first and the blood sugar be gotten under control. It is impossible to eliminate Candida while the blood sugar is high. There are specific herbs that are anti-fungal and have traditionally been used to lower blood sugar. I developed this protocol 2 years ago and have used it with good results, but I feel that most people should go right on a diabetic protocol to lower their sugar before attempting any Candida elimination. So here you have the 12 true causes of Candida.

Candida is becoming a very well known and recognized problem in this country. It has been estimated at 30% of all Americans have Candida. Now that we've addressed the causes, let's discuss why it is serious.


The major waste product of yeast cell activity is acetaldehyde and the by-product ethanol. Many people have a low iron content because this mineral is hard to absorb when Candida is present, and therefore have little oxygen in the tissues. Ethanol can cause excessive fatigue and reduces the strength and stamina which takes away ambition. It destroys enzymes needed for cell energy and causes the release of free radicals that encourages the aging process. Candida Albicans in an incredible destroyer of health and is the main missing link in many of our modern day diseases and sub-health conditions. The fact that Candida can rob the body of its nutrition and poison the tissues with it toxins is a major contribution, directly or indirectly to the following list of serious conditions:
1. Intolerance of perfumes, odors, fumes, fabric shop odors and tobacco smoke
2. Complaints that worsen in damp, muggy or moldy places
3. Athletes' foot, jock itch, fungal infections on the skin or nails
4. Craving for sugar, bread or alcohol
5. Prostitis or vaginitis
6. Diarrhea
7. Constipation
8. Abdominal distention, bloating or pain
9. Gas or flatulence
10. Rectal itching or rash
11. Colic
12. Diaper rash
13. Vaginal itch, burning or persistent infections
14. Kidney, bladder infections
15. Cystitis (inflammation of the bladder with possible infection)
16. Sinus infections
17. Joint pain or swelling
18. Acne
19. Hives
20. Rashes
21. Itching skin
22. Eczema
23. Psoriasis
24. Loss of sex drive
25. Impotence
26. Fatigue
27. Feeling drained
28. Memory loss
29. Feeling spaced out
30. Numbness, burning or tingling
31. Muscle aches
32. Muscle pains
33. Flu-like symptoms
34. Endometriosis (irregular or painful menstruation)
35. Cramps or menstrual irregularities
36. P.M.S
37. Spots in front of eyes
38. Erratic vision
39. Drowsiness
40. Irritability or jitteriness
41. Mood swings
42. Depression
43. Suicidal feelings
44. Headaches
45. Hypoglycemia
46. Feeling of swelling and tingling in the head
47. Heartburn
48. Indigestion
49. Belching
50. Intestinal gas
51. Mucus in the stools
52. Hemorrhoids
53. Dry mouth
54. Sores or blisters in the mouth
55. Bad breath
56. Nasal congestion
57. Nasal discharge
58. Nasal itching
59. Post nasal drip
60. Sore or dry mouth
61. Sore or dry throat
62. Cough
63. Pain or tightness in the chest
64. Wheezing or shortness of breath
65. Asthmatic symptoms
66. Burning or itching eyes
67. Burning on urination
68. Ear pain
69. Ear aches
70. Ear discharges
71. Painful intercourse
72. Food allergies or food reactions
73. Hayfever
74. General allergies
75. Thrush
76. Hair loss
The majority of people who have Candida do not realize they have it until become seriously ill. The symptoms are so numerous and seemingly unrelated that it is very perplexing to both doctor and patient. Candida itself is totally preventable and if you have this condition, there is a special way in which it can be completely and permanently eliminated. This is a remarkable anti-fungal program that overcomes Candida in a more reliable and permanent manner. If you can remove this parasite from your body using a natural approach, you will also remove all the negative effects and symptoms along with it. This program will significantly improve your digestion and all associated weaknesses including bloating, constipation, ulcers, colitis, colon problems, gas, chronic fatigue, aches and pains and many kinds of subtle and nagging health problems. Even acute infections such as the common cold, Epstein Bar Virus, bladder infections, skin eruptions, etc. can be prevented or significantly improved. It will especially take the stress off of the immune system, the glands and the nervous system. Reproductive organ problems which can have their roots in a Candida Yeast infection may eventually disappear. Many negative conditions may slowly go way with this incredible technique and it can help increase food assimilation by as much as 50%.

As you can see, the symptoms are so varied no one person has all the same set as another. The average Candida sufferer has 20 or more of these (while others have less and some have more). Many times they have given up on ever finding out what was wrong with them because all of these symptoms seem unrelated. One patient spent 7 days in the hospital, was wheeled from one examination room to another--a grand tour of the hospital--only to be told it was all in her head. She was charged over $6000.00 for that stay. Upon her release a stool analysis was done and Candida was found. In addition, her symptoms were worsened by all the jello and the horrible hospital food.

Symptoms of Candida, regardless of what they are, will worsen in hot, humid or muggy weather. Like any mold or fungus, heat and humidity help it grow and spread. Symptoms can also vary according to one's diet. Sugar, alcohol, starches, fermented foods, sweets (even fruits) will increase symptoms by feeding the yeast organisms. This will cause them to grow and release more toxins which will produce symptoms. Stress is key in triggering symptoms. It has long been recognized that stress plays a part in lowering the immune function of the body. The immune system is what tries to keep the yeast under control. Simply being over-worked, over- tired, or over-stressed will cause an increase in Candida and therefore its symptoms. The environment one lives in can play a big role if one is exposed to toxic metals, fumes, smoke, pollution, and in direct contact with various chemicals. The immune system can become overloaded and therefore further dip which will allow more yeast to grow. If one finds that these conditions cause an increase in symptoms, there is a very good chance that Candida is present. Proper testing is essential to determine this for sure and to find out how bad the condition is. Blood tests can be inaccurate if they only test for Candida antibodies and antigens. These tests can show positive even after the Candida is gone or if one simply has an allergy to yeast.

Facts About Candida

  • Yeast secrete an enzyme that digests the lining of the intestines.
  • Yeast shifts the immune system from Th1 to Th2. This sets the stage for allergies and viral infections.
  • Yeast enzymes break down IgA. IgA is the most predominant type of antibody that is found covering the gut mucosa. IgA keeps toxins and bacteria from binding to the cells that line the intestines. Without enough IgA, the intestines become inflamed, and the lymphoid tissue in the gut swells.
  • The byproducts of certain yeasts or fungus are able to alter the bacterial content of the intestines. (The fact that fungal metabolites can do this should come as little surprise. Many of our antibiotics are made from molds.)
  • Candida secretes an enzyme that reduces the body's ability to kill Staphyloccocus aureus, a common pathogen in human intestines.
  • Yeast creates toxins like tartaric acid, acetylaldehyde and arabinol that interfere with the body's ability to produce energy.
  • Drs. Truss, Galland and Ionescu have all measured reduced levels of amino acids, imbalances of fatty acids and deficiencies of various vitamin and minerals in their yeast syndrome patients. In particular, yeast reduce the body's coenzyme Q10, coenzyme B6, alpha ketoglutaric acid, taurine, and asparagine. Some types of yeast promote the formation of pentosines. These create a functional deficiency of B6, lipoic acid and folic acid.
  • The most dramatic proof of harmful yeast toxins comes from the Great Plains Laboratory. Tartaric acid from yeast causes muscle weakness. Dr. Shaw discovered very high levels of tartaric acid in the urine of two autistic brothers. Both had such severe muscle weakness that neither could stand up. When treated with an antifungal called Nystatin, the tartaric acid measurements declined, and the children improved. When the Nystatin was discontinued, the tartaric acid levels rose, and the children got worse. Often, Dr. Shaw also finds tartaric acid in the urine of those with fibromyalgia, a condition characterized by muscle pain, poor sleep and tender points.
  • Yeast can be present in the intestines even if they don't show up in a stool culture. Dr. Leo Galland has shown that the yeast can be damaged and not grow in a culture, even though the yeast were present in a stool sample.
  • The most harmful place for yeast seems to be in the small intestine. This was shown in a study of children with failure to thrive. Biopsies of the upper small intestine were taken and were examined with an electron microscope. The yeast were embedded in the intestinal lining in their invasive fungal or mycelial form. Some of these children had no yeast showing up in their stool. Yet the yeast in this first part of their intestinal tract was interfering with their nutrition.

Candida - schizophrenia, depession, ADHD, ADD bipolar disorder, Autism and OCD - the gut brain- Dr. Campbell-McBride- gut and Psychology Syndrome

Did you know there could be a link between mental health and your diet?
Imagine treating schizophrenia, depression, ADHD and ADD, bipolar disorder, autism, and obsessive-compulsive disorder with food instead of medicine!
In the UK, Dr. Natasha Campbell-McBride has uncovered a link between mental health and the food we eat. Prompted to look outside conventional medicine for a solution to her own child's developmental disabilities, Dr. Campbell-McBride found that digestion plays a major role in healthy development, mood, and mental health.
Today we discuss her book Gut and Psychology Syndrome and the link between mental health and diet that could change your life!

Q. In your book, you talk about the gut-brain connection. What is it and why is it important to psychiatric patients?

A. No system in your body functions in isolation. They are all connected, so it makes logical sense that all of our systems (cardio-vascular, digestive, nervous systems) operate together and affect one another.
Most psychiatric patients suffer from digestive problems. They have unhealthy inner ecosystems where there is an overgrowth of bad bacteria, yeast and fungus; they cannot digest food properly. This creates a large number of neurotoxins that can move from their intestines through the damaged intestinal lining into the blood stream where the toxins are carried to the brain.
This reality makes digestive health imperative for anyone with a mental disorder. Correcting digestive health can treat the disorder, and in some cases heal it.

Q. Where do the dangerous neurotoxins come from that may cause schizophrenia, depression, and other mental disorders?

A. One source of neurotoxins is digestion of certain foods, especially processed foods like sugar, flour and milk products.
For example, many people who suffer from depression, schizophrenia, ADD,ADHD, and autism also have an overgrowth of a yeast called Candida albicans. Candida and other yeasts feed on glucose from sugar and digest it differently from the good bacteria in your gut.
Candida albicans (and other yeasts turn dietary glucose into alcohol (ethanol) and its by-product acetaldehyde.
These toxic products of impaired digestion can:
  • Reduce stomach acid
  • Damage your gut lining
  • Impair your immunity
  • Affect your metabolism
  • Cause brain damage
So for many people with digestive problems, consuming sugar is like consuming alcohol.

Q. Now it makes sense why sugar is known as the "white death." What about gluten and casein? Many people with developmental and mental disorders avoid them. Why?

A. Gluten and casein are two other dietary substances that are difficult to digest and may contribute to mental health problems.
Gluten is a protein found in grains, and casein is a protein found in milk and milk products. Many people with digestive dysfunction (and mental disorders) struggle to digest the proteins in gluten and casein. Their bodies turn these proteins into substances similar to opiates like morphine and heroin.
Researchers believe that these substances get into the brain and affect it just like the drugs would and could be a cause of schizophrenia, depression, and other mental disorders.

Q. So you're saying that improper digestion might be a leading cause of schizophrenia, depression, ADD and ADHD, and autism. How does digestion become so impaired to allow these disorders to develop?

A. Any of these mental health conditions is due to a complex set of factors that is different for each individual. Gender, genetic makeup, pre-natal nutrition, drugs, environmental factors and more all contribute to a person's development.
In most cases, those who suffer from mental health disorders like depression and schizophrenia, and from developmental disorders like autism, something has harmed the beneficial bacteria in their gut, sometimes before birth and sometimes later on in life.
Some common culprits that damage gut flora include:
  • Antibiotics
  • Over-the-counter pain killers
  • Steroids
  • Birth control pills
  • Diets full of sugar and processed foods
  • Disease
  • Stress
Dr. Natasha Campbell-McBride's book, Gut and Psychology Syndrome, shows how digestion can affect your mental health. With clear explanations and helpful diagrams, she clearly shows how food can change your mood, and more! While Dr Campbell McBride's dietary suggestions follow the guidelines of the Specific Carbohydrate Diet, Donna Gates recommends that EVERYONE read The Gut and Psychology Syndrome today to learn valuable information that will enhance your understanding of the connection between the brain in our gut and the brain in our head!

Q. How can we heal the intestines and in turn heal our mental health?

A. Diet and lifestyle are two key factors that can cause schizophrenia, depression, autism and other mental disorders. Similarly, diet and lifestyle can heal mental and physical health.
If digestion heals, then the brain can also heal. Soon, mental disorders will be a thing of the past!
A Great Complement to The Body Ecology Diet!
Dr. Natasha Campbell-McBride's book, Gut and Psychology Syndrome, delves into the functioning of your intestines and explains in detail how digestion and mental health are intricately connected. She also gives wonderful advice on how to heal your gut with diet